Knowing the difference between active and passive exercise can help you understand what your rehabilitation process will encompass.
In this article, you’ll learn the difference between active and passive exercise, who should use them, and how they can benefit your rehabilitation program. Use the links below to jump straight to any section:
- What Are Passive Exercises?
- Who Can Benefit from Passive Exercises?
- What Are Active Exercises?
- Who Can Benefit from Active Exercises?
- Exercises to Get You Started
What Are Passive Exercises?
Passive exercises are also known as passive range of motion (ROM) exercises; and your range of motion includes how far you can move your joints in different directions. These exercises are considered passive because you don’t exert any effort. Instead, someone helps you move your muscles and joints through their full range of motion for you.
Who Can Benefit from Passive Exercises?
When you cannot move your limbs on your own, passive exercise allows a therapist or caregiver to move your body for you. Although passive exercise does not require effort on your behalf, the movement still carries many benefits.
For instance, movement improves blood flow in the affected areas and provides sensory stimulation to the limb. Passive stretching also helps prevent spasticity from worsening.
Passive exercises provide the most effective benefits when they are used consistently over a long period of time. Consistent repetition of therapeutic movements helps spark neuroplasticity: the mechanism the brain uses to rewire itself.
However, in order for passive exercise to induce neuroplasticity, attention must be paid to the movement. Passive exercise won’t be helpful if done while distracted or disengaged in the activity. Patients must focus on the passive movements in order to benefit from it.
What Are Active Exercises?
Active exercises involve your physical effort exerted into muscular activity.
These exercises can include active range of motion, like self-stretching, or general stroke rehabilitation exercises where you move your muscles through therapeutic movements.
When you’re doing the exercises yourself, it’s active exercise.
Movement difficulties occur after neurological injury because the brain cannot send the correct signals to the affected muscles. Rehabilitation exercise encourages the brain to rewire itself through neuroplasticity, which improves its ability to send signals to your muscles.
Neuroplasticity occurs with both passive and active exercise, but more with active exercise. Active exercise also helps with muscle strengthening. This is particularly beneficial if muscle atrophy has occurred from less daily movement.
Who Can Benefit from Active Exercises?
Patients that struggle with hemiparesis (weakness on one side of the body) can benefit from active exercise. As long as the person has some movement of their muscles (even if the control is not substantial), they can benefit from active exercises.
When mobility is limited and restricted by conditions like spasticity, passive exercises can be done before active exercise. This helps warm up the muscles and prepare them for active use.
Patients who have some movement of their affected side, and working towards regaining more mobility, can begin with active exercises. However, ask your physical therapist what’s right for you. Some range-of-motion exercises are recommended regardless of mobility level.
Just like passive exercise, active exercise benefits patients by stimulating neuroplasticity. Frequently practicing active rehab exercises will provide the brain with the stimulation it needs to rewire itself.
Exercises to Get You Started
Now that you know the difference between active and passive exercise, do you feel like your rehabilitation regimen is properly adapted to your ability level?
If yes, that’s great! If not, then talk with your therapist. Ask her to adjust your current exercises or recommend new ones. Many therapists are eager for patients to exercise at home, because healing involves the patient taking charge of their exercises and that’s when the best results are achieved.
To help with this, at-home rehab exercise devices like FitMi home therapy help motivate patients to exercise at home. This device is therapist-approved because it adapts to your ability level, and patients can practice both passive or active exercises.
Rehab devices have higher compliance rates than written sheets of exercise, which means that patients see better results with interesting equipment. However, some patients prefer written sheets.
To help you get started, here are some free exercise guides from our rehabilitation blog:
Passive Exercise Guides:
- Paralysis Recovery Exercises for Stroke Patients
- Passive Range of Motion Exercises for Stroke Patients
Active Exercise Guides:
Select exercises and practice them consistently in order to see the best results. If you’re unsure of selecting the right exercises for you, ask your therapist for recommendations.
We hope this article helps you on the road to recovery.